Using rats as a research model to investigate the effect of human adenovirus 36 on weight gain

Fatemeh Shirani, Ali Teimoori, Mohammad Rashno, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Majid Karandish

Abstract


BACKGROUND: Recent evidence has shown a positive correlation between obesity and viral infections with a particular emphasis on the human adenovirus-36 (Ad-36). Ad-36 is the first human virus that may increase adiposity in animals, and it is considered as a possible risk factor for obesity in humans; however, the results were not consistent across all the studies. The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Ad-36 infection on obesity in a rat model.

METHODS: Eight-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 170-240 gram (g), were randomly divided into two groups, infection group (48 rats) and a control group (12 rats). The rats in the infection group were infected with human Ad-36. All rats were given free access to a normal chow diet and water. They were weighed weekly.

RESULTS: The mean ± standard deviation (SD) body weights were 229.0 ± 25.9 g and 232.3 ± 16.6 g in the infection and control groups, respectively at the time of infection. The mean ± SD body weight of the infection group (304.0 ± 39.0 g) was higher than the control group (301.0 ± 36.5 g) at 12 weeks post-infection (P = 0.82). Although two groups had approximately same food intakes, the mean change in body weight was greater in the infection group than the control group (75.8 ± 27.9 g vs. 70.8 ± 24.5 g) but it was not significant (P = 0.57).

CONCLUSION:We did not find a statistically significant association between weight gain and Ad-36 infection in the rat model. It seems that longer follow-up duration is needed to develop a significant weight gain in the infected rats. Rats can be used as a good animal model for further investigations about Ad-36-induced obesity, provided not to rely merely on weight measurements. Evaluating body composition or histopathological assessments are suggested.

 


Keywords


Adenovirus Infections; Weight Gain; Wistar Rats

References


World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight [Online]. [cited 2015]; Available from: URL: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en

Ramazani J, Sanei H, Sadeghi M, Hidari R, Haghani P. Central obesity as a predictor of coronary artery occlusion. ARYA Atheroscler 2008; 4(1): 24-8.

Farshidi H, Nikparvar M, Zare S, Bushehri E, Eghbal Eftekhaari T. Obesity pattern in south of Iran: 2002-2006. ARYA Atheroscler 2008; 4(1): 37-41.

Ponterio E, Gnessi L. Adenovirus 36 and obesity: An overview. Viruses 2015; 7(7): 3719-40.

Hegde V, Dhurandhar NV. Microbes and obesity-interrelationship between infection, adipose tissue and the immune system. Clin Microbiol Infect 2013; 19(4): 314-20.

Dhurandhar NV. Infectobesity: Obesity of infectious origin. J Nutr 2001; 131(10): 2794S-7S.

Genoni G, Prodam F, Marolda A, Giglione E, Demarchi I, Bellone S, et al. Obesity and infection: Two sides of one coin. Eur J Pediatr 2014; 173(1): 25-32.

Kapila M, Khosla P, Dhurandhar NV. Novel short-term effects of adenovirus Ad-36 on hamster lipoproteins. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004; 28(12): 1521-7.

Sabin MA, Burgner D, Atkinson RL, Pei-Lun LZ, Magnussen CG, Cheung M, et al. Longitudinal investigation of adenovirus 36 seropositivity and human obesity: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Int J Obes (Lond) 2015; 39(11): 1644-50.

Dhurandhar NV. Is obesity caused by an adenovirus? Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2012; 10(5): 521-4.

Pasarica M, Mashtalir N, McAllister EJ, Kilroy GE, Koska J, Permana P, et al. Adipogenic human adenovirus Ad-36 induces commitment, differentiation, and lipid accumulation in human adipose-derived stem cells. Stem Cells 2008; 26(4): 969-78.

Xu MY, Cao B, Wang DF, Guo JH, Chen KL, Shi M, et al. Human adenovirus 36 infection increased the risk of obesity: A meta-analysis update. Medicine (Baltimore) 2015; 94(51): e2357.

Esposito S, Preti V, Consolo S, Nazzari E, Principi N. Adenovirus 36 infection and obesity. J Clin Virol 2012; 55(2): 95-100.

Harrison SC. Virology. Looking inside adenovirus. Science 2010; 329(5995): 1026-7.

Na HN, Park S, Jeon HJ, Kim HB, Nam JH. Reduction of adenovirus 36-induced obesity and inflammation by mulberry extract. Microbiol Immunol 2014; 58(5): 303-6.

Voss JD, Atkinson RL, Dhurandhar NV. Role of adenoviruses in obesity. Rev Med Virol 2015; 25(6): 379-87.

Atkinson RL, Dhurandhar NV, Allison DB, Bowen RL, Israel BA, Albu JB, et al. Human adenovirus-36 is associated with increased body weight and paradoxical reduction of serum lipids. Int J Obes (Lond) 2005; 29(3): 281-6.

Goossens VJ, deJager SA, Grauls GE, Gielen M, Vlietinck RF, Derom CA, et al. Lack of evidence for the role of human adenovirus-36 in obesity in a European cohort. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2011; 19(1): 220-1.

Ehsandar S, Zarkesh M, Daneshpour MS, Bandehpour M, Azizi F, Hedayati M. Prevalence of Human Adenovirus 36 and Its Association with Overweight/Obese and Lipid Profiles in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Iran J Endocrinol Metab 2014; 16(2): 88-94.

Pasarica M, Shin AC, Yu M, Ou Yang HM, Rathod M, Jen KL, et al. Human adenovirus 36 induces adiposity, increases insulin sensitivity, and alters hypothalamic monoamines in rats. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006; 14(11): 1905-13.

Nasri HR, Shahouzehi B, Masoumi-Ardakani Y, Iranpour M. Effects of digoxin on cardiac iron content in rat model of iron overload. ARYA Atheroscler 2016; 12(4): 180-4.

Atkinson RL. Current status of the field of obesity. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2014; 25(6): 283-4.

Seidell JC, Halberstadt J. The global burden of obesity and the challenges of prevention. Ann Nutr Metab 2015; 66(Suppl 2): 7-12.

Rashidi H, Payami SP, Latifi SM, Karandish M, Moravej AA, Aminzadeh M, et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its correlated factors among children and adolescents of Ahvaz aged 10 - 19. J Diabetes Metab Disord 2014; 13: 53.

Vieira PN, Silva MN, Mata J, Coutinho SR, Santos TC, Sardinha LB, et al. Correlates of health-related quality of life, psychological well-being, and eating self-regulation after successful weight loss maintenance. J Behav Med 2013; 36(6): 601-10.

Mann T, Tomiyama AJ, Westling E, Lew AM, Samuels B, Chatman J. Medicare's search for effective obesity treatments: Diets are not the answer. Am Psychol 2007; 62(3): 220-33.

Huttunen R, Syrjanen J. Obesity and the risk and outcome of infection. Int J Obes (Lond) 2013; 37(3): 333-40.

Serrano M, Moreno M, Bassols J, Moreno-Navarrete JM, Ortega F, Ricart W, et al. Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor is increased in adipose tissue of obese subjects: A role for adenovirus infection? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015; 100(3): 1156-63.

Ponterio E, Cangemi R, Mariani S, Casella G, De Cesare A, Trovato FM, et al. Adenovirus 36 DNA in human adipose tissue. Int J Obes (Lond) 2015; 39(12): 1761-4.

Dhurandhar NV. A framework for identification of infections that contribute to human obesity. Lancet Infect Dis 2011; 11(12): 963-9.

Bil-Lula I, Stapor S, Sochocka M, Wolyniec M, Zatonska K, Ilow R, et al. Infectobesity in the Polish Population - Evaluation of an Association between Adenoviruses Type 5, 31, 36 and Human Obesity. Int J Virol Mol Biol 2014; 3(1): 1-8.

Trovato GM, Martines GF, Garozzo A, Tonzuso A, Timpanaro R, Pirri C, et al. Ad36 adipogenic adenovirus in human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver Int 2010; 30(2): 184-90.

Dhurandhar NV, Kulkarni P, Ajinkya SM, Sherikar A. Effect of adenovirus infection on adiposity in chicken. Vet Microbiol 1992; 31(2-3): 101-7.

Almgren M, Atkinson R, He J, Hilding A, Hagman E, Wolk A, et al. Adenovirus-36 is associated with obesity in children and adults in Sweden as determined by rapid ELISA. PLoS One 2012; 7(7): e41652.

Parra-Rojas I, Del Moral-Hernandez O, Salgado-Bernabe AB, Guzman-Guzman IP, Salgado-Goytia L, Munoz-Valle JF. Adenovirus-36 seropositivity and its relation with obesity and metabolic profile in children. Int J Endocrinol 2013; 2013: 463194.

Trovato GM, Martines GF, Trovato FM, Pirri C, Pace P, Garozzo A, et al. Adenovirus-36 seropositivity enhances effects of nutritional intervention on obesity, bright liver, and insulin resistance. Dig Dis Sci 2012; 57(2): 535-44.

Voss JD, Burnett DG, Olsen CH, Haverkos HW, Atkinson RL. Adenovirus 36 antibodies associated with clinical diagnosis of overweight/obesity but not BMI gain: A military cohort study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014; 99(9): E1708-E1712.

Liu C, Xiao Y, Zhang J, Ren L, Li J, Xie Z, et al. Adenovirus infection in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections in Beijing, China, 2007 to 2012. BMC Infect Dis 2015; 15: 408.

Atkinson RL. Viruses as an etiology of obesity. Mayo Clin Proc 2007; 82(10): 1192-8.

Na HN, Kim J, Lee HS, Shim KW, Kimm H, Jee SH, et al. Association of human adenovirus-36 in overweight Korean adults. Int J Obes (Lond) 2012; 36(2): 281-5.

Iannaccone PM, Jacob HJ. Rats! Dis Model Mech 2009; 2(5-6): 206-10.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.